The name comes from the Hoover Company , one of the first and more influential companies in the development of the device. The device is also sometimes called a sweeper although the same term also refers to a carpet sweeper , a similar invention. History An early hand-pumped vacuum cleaner The vacuum cleaner evolved from the carpet sweeper via manual vacuum cleaners. The first manual models, using bellows, were developed in the s, and the first motorized designs appeared at the turn of the 20th century, with the first decade being the boom decade.
Manual vacuums Main article: Manual vacuum cleaner Patent model of Daniel Hess's carpet sweeper In a carpet sweeper was invented by Daniel Hess of West Union, Iowa that gathered dust with a rotating brush and a bellows for generating suction.
The bulky device worked with a belt driven fan cranked by hand that made it awkward to operate, although it was commercially marketed with mixed success. Bissell of Grand Rapids, Michigan in , who also manufactured carpet sweepers. Powered vacuum cleaners Further information: Kenney Housemaid using "dedusting pump", circa The end of the 19th century saw the introduction of powered cleaners, although early types used some variation of blowing air to clean instead of suction.
Louis , Missouri submitted a patent US No. Corrine Dufour of Savannah, Georgia received two patents in and for another blown air system that seems to have featured the first use of an electric motor.
Kenney's was a stationary 4, lb. Domestic vacuum cleaner A hand-powered pneumatic vacuum cleaner, circa An early electric-powered model is also shown The first vacuum-cleaning device to be portable and marketed at the domestic market was built in by Walter Griffiths, a manufacturer in Birmingham , England.
Kirby developed his first of many vacuums called the "Domestic Cyclone". It used water for dirt separation. Later revisions came to be known as the Kirby Vacuum Cleaner.
In department store janitor James Murray Spangler of Canton, Ohio invented the first portable electric vacuum cleaner, obtaining a patent for the Electric Suction Sweeper on June 2, Crucially, in addition to suction from an electric fan that blew the dirt and dust into a soap box and one of his wife's pillow cases, Spangler's design utilized a rotating brush to loosen debris.
Unable to produce the design himself due to lack of funding, he sold the patent in to local leather goods manufacturer William Henry Hoover , who had Spangler's machine redesigned with a steel casing, casters, and attachments, founding the company that in was renamed the Hoover Company.
Subsequent innovations included the beater bar in "It beats as it sweeps as it cleans" , disposal filter bags in the s, and an upright vacuum cleaner in In Continental Europe , the Fisker and Nielsen company in Denmark was the first to sell vacuum cleaners in The design weighed just The Swedish company Electrolux launched their Model V in with the innovation of being able to lie on the floor on two thin metal runners.
Post-Second World War This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message A Dyson DC07 upright cyclonic vacuum cleaner using centrifugal force to separate dust and particles from the air flowing through the cylindrical collection vessel For many years after their introduction, vacuum cleaners remained a luxury item, but after the Second World War, they became common among the middle classes.
Vacuums tend to be more common in Western countries because in most other parts of the world, wall-to-wall carpeting is uncommon and homes have tile or hardwood floors , which are easily swept, wiped or mopped manually without power assist. The last decades of the 20th century saw the more widespread use of technologies developed earlier, including filterless cyclonic dirt separation, central vacuum systems and rechargeable hand-held vacuums. In addition, miniaturized computer technology and improved batteries allowed the development of a new type of machine — the autonomous robotic vacuum cleaner.
In Electrolux of Sweden demonstrated the Electrolux Trilobite , the first autonomous cordless robotic vacuum cleaner on the BBC-TV program Tomorrow' World, introducing it to the consumer market in It has claimed to be light-weight and easier to maneuver compared to using wheels , although it is not the first vacuum cleaner to do this — the Hoover Constellation predated it by at least 35 years.
A British inventor has developed a new cleaning technology known as Air Recycling Technology, which, instead of using a vacuum, uses an air stream to collect dust from the carpet. Modern configurations A wide variety of technologies, designs, and configurations are available for both domestic and commercial cleaning jobs. Upright designs generally employ a rotating brushroll or beater bar, which removes dirt through a combination of sweeping and vibration.
The older of the two designs, direct-fan cleaners have a large impeller fan mounted close to the suction opening, through which the dirt passes directly, before being blown into a bag. The motor is often cooled by a separate cooling fan.
Because of their large-bladed fans, and comparatively short airpaths, direct-fan cleaners create a very efficient airflow from a low amount of power, and make effective carpet cleaners. Their "above-floor" cleaning power is less efficient, since the airflow is lost when it passes through a long hose, and the fan has been optimized for airflow volume and not suction.
Fan-bypass uprights have their motor mounted after the filter bag. Dust is removed from the airstream by the bag, and usually a filter, before it passes through the fan.
The fans are smaller, and are usually a combination of several moving and stationary turbines working in sequence to boost power. The motor is cooled by the airstream passing through it. Fan-bypass vacuums are good for both carpet and above-floor cleaning, since their suction does not significantly diminish over the distance of a hose, as it does in direct-fan cleaners. However, their air-paths are much less efficient, and can require more than twice as much power as direct-fan cleaners to achieve the same results.
The most common upright vacuum cleaners use a drive-belt powered by the suction motor to rotate the brush-roll. However, a more common design of dual motor upright is available. In these cleaners, the suction is provided via a large motor, while the brushroll is powered by a separate, smaller motor, which does not create any suction.
The brush-roll motor can sometimes be switched off, so hard floors can be cleaned without the brush-roll scattering the dirt. It may also have an automatic cut-off feature which shuts the motor off if the brush-roll becomes jammed, protecting it from damage. Canister Canister models in the UK also often called cylinder models dominate the European market.
They have the motor and dust collector using a bag or bagless in a separate unit, usually mounted on wheels, which is connected to the vacuum head by a flexible hose. Their main advantage is flexibility, as the user can attach different heads for different tasks, and maneuverability the head can reach under furniture and makes it very easy to vacuum stairs and vertical surfaces.
Many cylinder models have power heads as standard or add-on equipment containing the same sort of mechanical beaters as in upright units, making them as efficient on carpets as upright models. Such beaters are driven by a separate electric motor or a turbine which uses the suction power to spin the brushroll via a drive belt. Smaller versions, for use in garages or small workshops, are usually electrically powered.
Built-in dust collection systems are also used in many workshops. For the Jonathan Coulton song, see Thing a Week.
They are generally designed to be used both indoors and outdoors and to accommodate both wet and dry debris; some are also equipped with an exhaust port or detachable blower for reversing the airflow, a useful function for everything from clearing a clogged hose to blowing dust into a corner for easy collection. They commonly can accommodate both wet and dry soilage, a useful feature in industrial plants and manufacturing facilities.
Backpack Backpack vacuum cleaners are commonly used for commercial cleaning: They are essentially small canister vacuums strapped onto the user's back. Hand-held USB-powered hand-held vacuum cleaner promotional giveaway.
Lightweight hand-held vacuum cleaners, either powered from rechargeable batteries or mains power, are also popular for cleaning up smaller spills. Robotic The Electrolux Trilobite was the first mass-produced robotic vacuum cleaner In the late s and early s, several companies developed robotic vacuum cleaners , a form of carpet sweeper usually equipped with limited suction power.
Some prominent brands are Roomba , Neato , and bObsweep. These machines move autonomously while collecting surface dust and debris into a dustbin. They can usually navigate around furniture and come back to a docking station to charge their batteries, and a few are able to empty their dust containers into the dock as well.
Most models are equipped with motorized brushes and a vacuum motor to collect dust and debris. While most robotic vacuum cleaners are designed for home use, some models are appropriate for operation in offices, hotels, hospitals, etc.
In December , Neato Robotics launched the world's first robotic vacuum cleaner which uses a rotating laser-based range-finder a form of lidar to scan and map its surrounding.
It uses this map to clean the floor methodically, even if it requires the robot to return to its base multiple times to recharge itself. In many cases it will notice when an area of the floor that was previously inaccessible becomes reachable, such as when a dog wakes up from a nap, and return to vacuum that area. This dirt separation principle was well known and often used in central vacuum systems. Geier Company had obtained a patent on a cyclonic vacuum cleaner as early as , which was later sold to Health-Mor in , introducing the Filter Queen cyclonic canister vacuum cleaner.
Critics expected that people would not buy a vacuum cleaner at twice the price of a conventional unit, but the Dyson design later became the most popular cleaner in the UK. Instead, the dust is separated in a detachable cylindrical collection vessel or bin. Air and dust are sucked at high speed into the collection vessel at a direction tangential to the vessel wall, creating a fast-spinning vortex.
The dust particles and other debris move to the outside of the vessel by centrifugal force , where they fall due to gravity. In fixed-installation central vacuum cleaners , the cleaned air may be exhausted directly outside without need for further filtration.
A well-designed cyclonic filtration system loses suction power due to airflow restriction only when the collection vessel is almost full. This is in marked contrast to filter bag systems, which lose suction when pores in the filter become clogged as dirt and dust are collected.
In portable cyclonic models, the cleaned air from the center of the vortex is expelled from the machine after passing through a number of successively finer filters at the top of the container. The first filter is intended to trap particles which could damage the subsequent filters that remove fine dust particles. The filters must regularly be cleaned or replaced to ensure that the machine continues to perform efficiently. Since Dyson's success in raising public awareness of cyclonic separation, several other companies have introduced cyclone models.
Plastic or metal piping connects the inlets to the central unit. The vacuum head may be unpowered, or have beaters operated by an electric motor or by an air-driven turbine. The dirt bag or collection bin in a central vacuum system is usually so large that emptying or changing needs to be done less often, perhaps a few times per year for an ordinary household.
The central unit usually stays in stand-by, and is turned on by a switch on the handle of the hose. Alternately, the unit powers up when the hose is plugged into the wall inlet, when the metal hose connector makes contact with two prongs in the wall inlet and control current is transmitted through low voltage wires to the main unit.
A central vacuum typically produces greater suction than common portable vacuum cleaners because a larger fan and more powerful motor can be used when they are not required to be portable. A cyclonic separation system , if used, does not lose suction as the collection container fills up, until the container is nearly full. This is in marked contrast to filter-bag designs, which start losing suction immediately as pores in the filter become clogged by accumulated dirt and dust.
A benefit to allergy sufferers is that unlike a standard vacuum cleaner, which must blow some of the dirt collected back into the room being cleaned no matter how efficient its filtration , a central vacuum removes all the dirt collected to the central unit.
Since this central unit is usually located outside the living area, no dust is recirculated back into the room being cleaned.
The name comes from the Hoover Company , one of the first and more influential companies in the development of the device. The device is also sometimes called a sweeper although the same term also refers to a carpet sweeper , a similar invention.
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