Atlas of the Byzantine Empire

Опубликовано11.11.2018 в 03:43АвторNijar






Christian Byzantine Empire Wrecked by West, a Lesson for Russia - Great Russian Documentary

Ship burial of a Rus chieftain as described by the Arab traveler Ahmad ibn Fadlan who visited Kievan Rus in the 10th century, painted by Henryk Siemiradzki The Rus' initially appeared in Serkland in the 9th century, traveling as merchants along the Volga trade route, selling furs, honey, and slaves, as well as luxury goods such as amber, Frankish swords, and walrus ivory.

Hoards of 9th century Baghdad -minted silver coins have been found in Sweden, particularly in Gotland. Variations in the size of the coin hoards show that there were phases of increased importation of coins and sometime decades during which very few coins were imported.

By the end of the 9th century Staraya Ladoga was replaced as the most important center by Novgorod. From these centers the Rus were able to send their goods as far as Baghdad. Baghdad was the political and cultural center of the Islamic world in the 9th and 10th centuries and the Rus merchants who went there to trade their goods for silver interacted with cultures and goods from the Islamic World, but also from China, India, and North Africa.

The account written by Ibn Fadlan about his travels from Baghdad to the capital of the Bulghar kingdom gives details which can reveal the cultural interaction between the two groups. Ibn Fadlan gives a vivid description of the daily habits of the Rus, as well as the only known first-person account of the complicated ship-burning funeral ceremony. Some raiding, however, was necessary to gain initial control of the towns and regions that they developed into centers of economic activities.

The Rus' undertook the first large-scale expedition in ; having arrived on ships, they pillaged Gorgan , in the territory of present-day Iran , and the adjacent areas, taking slaves and goods. On their return, the northern raiders were attacked and defeated by Khazar Muslims in the Volga Delta , and those who escaped were killed by the local tribes on the middle Volga.

During their next expedition in , the Rus' captured Barda , the capital of Arran , in the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan. The Rus' stayed there for several months, killing many inhabitants of the city and amassing substantial plunder.

It was only an outbreak of dysentery among the Rus' that forced them to depart with their spoils. Sviatoslav , prince of Kiev, commanded the next attack, which destroyed the Khazar state in Sviatoslav's campaign established Rus' control over the north-south trade routes, helping to alter the demographics of the region.

Raids continued through the time period with the last Scandinavian attempt to reestablish the route to the Caspian Sea led by Ingvar the Far-Travelled in Byzantine Empire Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes. The earliest Byzantine record of the Rus' may have been written prior to It is preserved in the Greek Life of St. George of Amastris, which speaks of a raid that had extended into Paphlagonia.

These relate that a delegation from the court of the Byzantine emperor visited Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious at his court in Ingelheim in In this delegation were two men who called themselves Rhos Rhos vocari dicebant. Louis enquired about their origins and learnt that they were Swedes.

Fearing that they were spies for their brothers, the Danes , he incarcerated them. The result of this attack is disputed, but the Varangians continued their efforts as they regularly sailed on their monoxyla down the Dnieper into the Black Sea. The Rus' raids into the Caspian Sea were recorded by Arab authors in the s and in , , , , and later. Although the Rus' had predominantly peaceful trading relations with the Byzantines, the rulers of Kiev launched the relatively successful naval expedition of and the abortive campaign of against Constantinople, as well as the large-scale invasion of the Balkans by Sviatoslav I in — These raids were successful in forcing the Byzantines to re-arrange their trading arrangements; militarily, the Varangians were usually defeated by the superior Byzantine forces, especially in the sea due to Byzantine use of Greek fire.

Varangian Guard Another illumination of a scene from the Skylitzes Chronicle , depicting a Thracesian woman killing a Varangian who tried to rape her, whereupon his comrades praised her and gave her his possessions. Initially the guard was composed of Varangians who came from Kievan Rus'. The guard was first formed under Emperor Basil II after , following the Christianization of Kievan Rus' and union with Vladimir I of Kiev , who sent 6, men to Basil as part of a military assistance agreement.

3 Oct Byzantine Empire: History and geography of the Byzantine Empire, the The Avars moved westward from south Russia, subjugating Utigurs.

Basil's distrust of the native Byzantine guardsmen, whose loyalties often shifted with fatal consequences, as well as the proven loyalty of the Varangians, many of whom served in Byzantium even before, led the emperor to employ them as his personal guard. Over the years, new recruits from Sweden, Denmark, and Norway kept a predominantly Scandinavian cast to the organization until the late 11th century. By the time of Emperor Alexios Komnenos in the late 11th century, the Varangian Guard was largely recruited from Anglo-Saxons and "others who had suffered at the hands of the Vikings and their cousins the Normans".

The Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic peoples shared with the Vikings a tradition of faithful, oath-bound service to death if necessary , and after the Norman Conquest of England there were many fighting men, who had lost their lands and former masters, looking for a living elsewhere.

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The Varangian Guard not only provided security for Byzantine emperors but participated in many wars involving Byzantium and often played a crucial role, since it was usually employed at critical moments of battle. By the late 13th century, Varangians were mostly ethnically assimilated by Byzantines, though the guard operated until at least the midth century, and in there were still some people identifying themselves as "Varangians" in Constantinople.

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In popular culture Rosemary Sutcliff 's historical novel Blood Feud depicts Basil II's formation of the Varangian Guard from the point of view of a half-Saxon orphan who journeyed to Constantinople via the Dnieper trade route. In The Bulpington of Blup by H. Wells , the father of the protagonist maintains for years the fiction that he is at work on "a History of the Varangians that was to outshine Doughty ". The John Ringo Paladin of Shadows series features a fictional, long-forgotten enclave of the Varangian Guard in the mountains of Georgia.

Turisas ' second studio album The Varangian Way is a concept album that tells the story of a group of Scandinavians travelling the river routes of medieval Russia, through Ladoga, Novgorod and Kiev to the Byzantine Empire. Their faction have a unique unit called a "Vaegir Guard". In the video games Medieval: Total War and Medieval II: Varangian soldiers are a common enemy in the video game Assassin's Creed: In the Warhammer 40K universe, there is a chapter of space marines known as the "Space Wolves" that also go by the "Vaerangian Guard" the Varangian Guard appear as a mercenary unit available exclusively to the Byzantine emperor.

Ship burial of a Rus chieftain as described by the Arab traveler Ahmad ibn Fadlan who visited Kievan Rus in the 10th century, painted by Henryk Siemiradzki The Rus' initially appeared in Serkland in the 9th century, traveling as merchants along the Volga trade route, selling furs, honey, and slaves, as well as luxury goods such as amber, Frankish swords, and walrus ivory. Hoards of 9th century Baghdad -minted silver coins have been found in Sweden, particularly in Gotland.


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{REPLACEMENT-(Зайцев.нет)-(web-climat.ru)}Shepherd, Historical Atlas, Byzantine Empire in The despotate of Epirus from to The despotate of Epirus from to Byzantine Empire in Notes and references General remarks:

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