How to pronounce bronchospasm

Опубликовано11.11.2018 в 05:05АвторAkijas






How to Pronounce bronchospasm - American English

Abstract To determine which mediators are involved in antigen-induced bronchospasm and microvascular leakage in the airways of ovalbumin sensitised Brown Norway rats we investigated the effect of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, mepyramine, a 5-HT receptor antagonist, methysergide, and a cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist, montelukast. Antigen-induced bronchospasm appears to equally involve the activation of 5-HT and cys-leukotriene-1 receptors whereas ovalbumin-induced microvascular leakage appears to be predominantly mediated by cys-leukotriene-1 receptors.

Antigen, bronchospasm, microvascular leakage, histamine, 5-HT, LTD4, cys-leukotriene-1 receptors, airways Introduction Bronchospasm and the leakage of plasma proteins from the microvasculature into airways tissue are seen as important consequences of allergic airways inflammation in man Chung et al.

These phenomena have been modelled in sensitized animals challenged with the appropriate inhaled allergen and the effect of novel anti-asthma compounds assessed. Intravenously administered ovalbumin in the antigen-sensitized Brown Norway rat causes bronchospasm Nagase et al.

The intravenous route confers the advantage of a reliable reproducible model using small numbers of animals per group. Furthermore, antigen given to sensitized Brown Norway rats via the inhaled route gives a notoriously variable response with some animals not responding at all Sapienza et al. The mechanism of the acute effects of ovalbumin on vascular integrity and bronchospasm are not fully understood but are thought to involve the release and actions of one or more inflammatory mediators.

The early response to antigen in sensitized animals is thought to involve inflammatory mediators released from mast cells Holgate et al. In this study we have investigated the effects of ovalbumin, histamine, 5-HT and LTD4 on leakage in three different regions of the airways, the trachea, bronchi and the intra-pulmonary airways.

Furthermore, we have attempted to elucidate which mediators drive both the bronchospasm and microvascular leakage responses to antigen in the airways of sensitized Brown Norway rats by the use of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, mepyramine, a 5-HT receptor antagonist, methysergide and a cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist, montelukast Jones et al. This is the first study in which selective receptor antagonists have been used to define a role for all three mediators in antigen-induced leakage at different airway levels throughout the respiratory tract.

Preliminary data from this study has previously been presented in abstract form Hele et al. Animals were allowed free access to standard laboratory chow and water. Antigen-induced microvascular leakage in the airways Plasma leakage was measured as described by Bernareggi et al. Briefly, sensitized male Brown Norway rats were anaesthetized with isofluorane 3.

spasmodic contraction of the muscular lining of the bronchi, as in asthma, causing difficulty in breathing. bronchospasm in Medicine. A contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing narrowing of the lumen.

One minute later while still anaesthetized they received ovalbumin 0. The chest was opened and an incision made in the left ventricle, a cannula was inserted through the left ventricle and into the ascending aorta and approximately ml of sterile saline 0.

The heart and lungs were removed en bloc. The trachea, bronchi and lungs were dissected free and the parenchyma was scraped from the intra-pulmonary airways. The absorbances of the resulting extracts were determined against standard concentrations of Evans blue at nm using a Cecil spectrophotometer. Briefly, the trachea was cannulated and the animal artificially respired.

A cannula was also placed in the oesophagus via the mouth to facilitate the measurement of airways resistance.

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Animals received vehicle sterile saline 0. Histamine, 5-HT or LTD4-induced microvascular leakage in the airways The experimental protocol for the mediator studies was as for the ovalbumin study described above. The vehicle for histamine and 5-HT was sterile saline 0.

Animals were killed 15 min after mediator administration and tissues removed for Evans blue dye extraction. Effect of mepyramine, methysergide or montelukast alone or in combination on mediator or antigen-induced microvascular leakage in the airways Plasma leakage was assessed as described above.

The doses and timings for mepyramine, methysergide Church, and montelukast Jones et al. In a separate experiment a further group of animals received a combination of all three antagonists at the same doses and timings outlined above prior to exposure to ovalbumin, histamine, 5-HT or LTD4. The combination was profiled against each of the antagonists. Animals were killed 15 min after ovalbumin or mediator administration and tissues removed for Evans blue dye extraction.

Effect of mepyramine, methysergide or montelukast alone or in combination on antigen-induced changes in airway resistance Changes in airways resistance were measured as described above. A further group of animals received a combination of the three antagonists, at the doses and timings outlined above, prior to intravenously administered ovalbumin, histamine, 5-HT or LTD4.

Statistical analysis was carried out using one way analysis of variance with a correction for multiple comparisons using Dunnett's critical values. All experiments were conducted in accordance with Home Office guidelines for animal welfare based on the Animals Scientific Procedures Act All other materials were purchased from Sigma Poole, U.

Results Effect of antigen administration on microvascular leakage in the airways Intravenous administration of ovalbumin 0. At a dose of 0.

Abstract To determine which mediators are involved in antigen-induced bronchospasm and microvascular leakage in the airways of ovalbumin sensitised Brown Norway rats we investigated the effect of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, mepyramine, a 5-HT receptor antagonist, methysergide, and a cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist, montelukast. Antigen-induced bronchospasm appears to equally involve the activation of 5-HT and cys-leukotriene-1 receptors whereas ovalbumin-induced microvascular leakage appears to be predominantly mediated by cys-leukotriene-1 receptors.


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How to pronounce bronchospasm


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{REPLACEMENT-(Зайцев.нет)-(web-climat.ru)}Above there is a transcription of this term and an audio file with correct pronunciation. This term consists of 3 syllables.

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Comments: 1

  1. 16.11.2018
    Zulukinos

    I have not understood, what you mean?