Massimo Cacciari su Giambattista Vico

Опубликовано08.11.2018 в 08:18АвторSharr






Antonio Gargano - "Giambattista Vico" - 2 marzo 2018

The terms Constructionism and constructivism are often, but should not be, used interchangeably. Constructionism is an approach to learning that was developed by Papert; the approach was greatly influenced by his work with Piaget, but it is very different. Constructionism involves the creation of a product to show learning. Marx was among the first to suggest such an ambitious expansion of the power of ideas to inform the material realities of people's lives.

For instance, early development can be attributed to the thought of Greek philosophers such as Heraclitus Everything flows, nothing stands still , Protagoras Man is the measure of all things. Protagoras is clearly represented by Plato and hence the tradition as a relativist.

The Pyrrhonist sceptics have also been so interpreted. Although this is more contentious. The Enlightenment's claim of the universality of Reason as the only true source of knowledge generated a Romantic reaction involving an emphasis on the separate natures of races, species, sexes and types of human. In the following famous saying, he insists that the ways in which questions are posed determines the trajectory of scientific movement, before summarizing "nothing is given, all is constructed": It is precisely this that marks out a problem as being of the true scientific spirit: If there were no question, there would be no scientific knowledge.

Nothing proceeds from itself. While quantum mechanics is starting to grow, Gaston Bachelard makes a call for a new science in Le nouvel esprit scientifique The New Scientific Spirit.

This link with action, which could be called a "philosophy of action", was well represented by Spanish poet Antonio Machado: Caminante, no hay camino, se hace camino al andar. Ludwik Fleck establishes scientific constructivism by introducing the notions of thought collective Denkkollektiv , and thought style Denkstil , through which the evolution of science is much more understandable, because the research objects can be described in terms of the assumptions thought style that are shared for practical but also inherently social reasons, or just because any thought collective tends to preserve itself.

These notions have been drawn upon by Thomas Kuhn. Norbert Wiener gives another defense of teleology in Behavior, Intention and Teleology and is one of the creators of cybernetics. Jean Piaget , after the creation in of the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva, first uses the expression "constructivist epistemologies" see above.

Constructivism refers to, “the philosophical belief that people construct their own Giambattista Vico published a treatise on the construction of knowledge in.

According to Ernst von Glasersfeld , Jean Piaget is "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing" in An Exposition of Constructivism: Why Some Like it Radical, and "the most prolific constructivist in our century" in Aspects of Radical Constructivism, Austin is associated with the view that speech is not only passively describing a given reality, but it can change the social reality to which it is applied through speech acts.

Simon called "the sciences of the artificial" these new sciences cybernetics, cognitive sciences, decision and organisation sciences that, because of the abstraction of their object information, communication, decision , cannot match with the classical epistemology and its experimental method and refutability.

Gregory Bateson and his book Steps to an Ecology of Mind Heinz von Foerster , invited by Jean Piaget, presented "Objects: Paul Watzlawick , who supervised in the publication of Invented Reality: Ernst von Glasersfeld , who has promoted since the end of the 70s radical constructivism see below.

Constructivism and sciences Main article: Social constructivism One version of social constructivism contends that categories of knowledge and reality are actively created by social relationships and interactions. These interactions also alter the way in which scientific episteme is organized. Social activity presupposes human beings inhabiting shared forms of life, and in the case of social construction, utilizing semiotic resources meaning-making and signifying with reference to social structures and institutions.

Several traditions use the term Social Constructivism: Ludwig Wittgenstein 's later philosophy can be seen as a foundation for social constructivism, with its key theoretical concepts of language games embedded in forms of life. Constructivism in philosophy of science Thomas Kuhn argued that changes in scientists' views of reality not only contain subjective elements, but result from group dynamics, "revolutions" in scientific practice and changes in "paradigms". Instead, the issue is which paradigm should in future guide research on problems many of which neither competitor can yet claim to resolve completely.

A decision between alternate ways of practicing science is called for, and in the circumstances that decision must be based less on past achievement than on future promise. A decision of that kind can only be made on faith. In the field of the social sciences, constructivism as an epistemology urges that researchers reflect upon the paradigms that may be underpinning their research, and in the light of this that they become more open to consider other ways of interpreting any results of the research.

Furthermore, the focus is on presenting results as negotiable constructs rather than as models that aim to "represent" social realities more or less accurately. Norma Romm in her book Accountability in Social Research argues that social researchers can earn trust from participants and wider audiences insofar as they adopt this orientation and invite inputs from others regarding their inquiry practices and the results thereof.

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Constructivism and psychology Main article: Constructivism psychological school In psychology , constructivism refers to many schools of thought that, though extraordinarily different in their techniques applied in fields such as education and psychotherapy , are all connected by a common critique of previous standard approaches, and by shared assumptions about the active constructive nature of human knowledge.

In particular, the critique is aimed at the "associationist" postulate of empiricism, "by which the mind is conceived as a passive system that gathers its contents from its environment and, through the act of knowing, produces a copy of the order of reality. Constructivism philosophy of education Joe L.

Kincheloe has published numerous social and educational books on critical constructivism , , , a version of constructivist epistemology that places emphasis on the exaggerated influence of political and cultural power in the construction of knowledge, consciousness, and views of reality.

In the contemporary mediated electronic era, Kincheloe argues, dominant modes of power have never exerted such influence on human affairs. Coming from a critical pedagogical perspective, Kincheloe argues that understanding a critical constructivist epistemology is central to becoming an educated person and to the institution of just social change. Kincheloe's characteristics of critical constructivism: Knowledge is socially constructed: World and information co-construct one another Consciousness is a social construction Political struggles: Power plays an exaggerated role in the production of knowledge and consciousness The necessity of understanding consciousness—even though it does not lend itself to traditional reductionistic modes of measurability The importance of uniting logic and emotion in the process of knowledge and producing knowledge The inseparability of the knower and the known The centrality of the perspectives of oppressed peoples—the value of the insights of those who have suffered as the result of existing social arrangements The existence of multiple realities: Making sense of a world far more complex that we originally imagined Becoming humble knowledge workers: Understanding our location in the tangled web of reality Standpoint epistemology: Locating ourselves in the web of reality, we are better equipped to produce our own knowledges Constructing practical knowledge for critical social action Complexity: Overcoming reductionism Knowledge is always entrenched in a larger process The centrality of interpretation: Critical hermeneutics The new frontier of classroom knowledge: Personal experiences intersecting with pluriversal information Constructing new ways of being human: Critical ontology Constructivism and postmodernism For some[ who?

Some have gone so far as to attribute the rise of cultural studies the cultural turn to social constructionism. From a realist's point of view, both postmodernism and constructivism can be interpreted as relativist theories.

Cultural constructivism Cultural constructivism asserts that knowledge and reality are a product of their cultural context, meaning that two independent cultures will likely form different observational methodologies. Francisco Varela , Humberto Maturana , and Heinz von Foerster Ernst von Glasersfeld was a prominent proponent of radical constructivism.

This claims that knowledge is not a commodity which is transported from one mind into another. Rather, it is up to the individual to "link up" specific interpretations of experiences and ideas with their own reference of what is possible and viable. That is, the process of constructing knowledge, of understanding, is dependent on the individual's subjective interpretation of their active experience, not what "actually" occurs.

Understanding and acting are seen by radical constructivists not as dualistic processes, but "circularly conjoined". Relational constructivism Relational constructivism can be perceived as a relational consequence of the radical constructivism. In contrary to social constructivism, it picks up the epistemological threads and maintains the radical constructivist idea that humans cannot overcome their limited conditions of reception i. Therefore, humans are not able to come to objective conclusions about the world.

In spite of the subjectivity of human constructions of reality, relational constructivism focusses on the relational conditions applying to human perceptional processes.

Coming from this perspective it then focusses on the not only social, but also material relations under which these cognitive construction processes are performed.

Not only truth and reality, but also " evidence ", " document ", " experience ", " fact ", "proof", and other central categories of empirical research in physics , biology , statistics , history , law , etc.

20 Dec what Piaget intended when he spoke of “constructivism.” That is one in Naples by Giambattista Vico, the other in Dublin by George Berkeley.

Thus, a "realist" or "rationalist" interpretation is subjected to criticism. Kincheloe's political and pedagogical notion above has emerged as a central articulation of the concept.

While recognizing the constructedness of reality, many representatives of this critical paradigm deny philosophy the task of the creative construction of reality. They eagerly criticize realistic judgments, but they do not move beyond analytic procedures based on subtle tautologies. They thus remain in the critical paradigm and consider it to be a standard of scientific philosophy per se. Genetic epistemology James Mark Baldwin invented this expression, which was later popularized by Jean Piaget.

S'il n'y a pas eu de question, il ne peut y avoir de connaissance scientifique. Rien ne va de soi. Tout est construit, Gaston Bachelard in "La formation de l'esprit scientifique" "And, irrespective of what one might assume, in the sciences, problems do not arise by themselves.

It is, precisely, because all problems are posed that they embody the scientific spirit. The most common one is that it either explicitly advocates or implicitly reduces to relativism. This is because it takes the concept of truth to be a socially "constructed" and thereby socially relative one. This leads to the charge of self-refutation: In another social formation, it may well be false. If so, then social constructivism itself would be false in that social formation.

Further, one could then say that social constructivism could be both true and false simultaneously. Another criticism of constructivism is that it holds that the concepts of two different social formations be entirely different and incommensurate. This being the case, it is impossible to make comparative judgements about statements made according to each worldview. This is because the criteria of judgement will themselves have to be based on some worldview or other.

If this is the case, then it brings into question how communication between them about the truth or falsity of any given statement could be established. As the Wittgensteinian philosopher Gavin Kitching argues, however, constructivists usually implicitly presuppose a deterministic view of language which severely constrains the minds and use of words by members of societies: Kitching notes the contradiction here: While other individuals are controlled by the dominant concepts of society, the advocate of constructivism can transcend these concepts and see through them.

The terms Constructionism and constructivism are often, but should not be, used interchangeably. Constructionism is an approach to learning that was developed by Papert; the approach was greatly influenced by his work with Piaget, but it is very different.


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Giambattista Vico


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{REPLACEMENT-(Зайцев.нет)-(web-climat.ru)}Impressum Giambattista Vico Neapolitan philosopher , considered the first precursor of radical constructivism. The only way of "knowing" a thing is to have made it, for only then do we know what its components are and how they were put together.

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