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Опубликовано11.11.2018 в 06:42АвторSalkree






Rebuilding Rome [Part 2] Island Conquerers - Byzantium - Let's Play Europa Universalis 4

Background During the late 6th and early 7th centuries, the Byzantine Empire was under frequent attack from all sides. The Lombards occupied northern Italy , largely unopposed. In order to face the mounting pressure, in the more distant provinces of the West, recently regained by Justinian I r. In essence however they merely recognized and formalized the greater prominence of the local general, or magister militum , over the respective civilian praetorian prefect as a result of the provinces' precarious security situation.

Justinian had given military authority to the governors of individual provinces plagued by brigandage in Asia Minor , but more importantly, he had also created the exceptional combined military-civilian circumscription of the quaestura exercitus and abolished the civilian Diocese of Egypt , putting a dux with combined authority at the head of each of its old provinces.

9 Jan Europa Universalis IV. Europa Universalis IV: The Cossacks Content Pack. This mod replaces the Turk-like Tier Byzantine models from Purple Phoenix with the Theodoran Tier models from the Cossacks content pack, as it is no fun to remove kebab but still look like kebab.

The rapid Muslim conquest of Syria and Egypt and consequent Byzantine losses in manpower and territory meant that the Empire found itself struggling for survival.

In order to respond to this unprecedented crisis, the Empire was drastically reorganized. The very name thema is of uncertain etymology, but most scholars follow Constantine Porphyrogennetos , who records that it originates from Greek thesis "placement".

For most of the 20th century, the establishment of the themes was attributed to the Emperor Heraclius r. According to Ostrogorsky, this "shows that the process of establishing troops themes in specific areas of Asia Minor has already begun at this time. The traditional view, championed by Ostrogorsky, holds that the establishment of the themes also meant the creation of a new type of army. In his view, instead of the old force, heavily reliant on foreign mercenaries, the new Byzantine army was based on native farmer-soldiers living on state-leased military estates.

The Byzantine themata in Asia Minor as they existed in c. What is clear is that at some point in the mid-7th century, probably in the late s and s, the Empire's field armies were withdrawn to Anatolia, the last major contiguous territory remaining to the Empire, and assigned to the districts that became known as the themes. Territorially, each of the new themes encompassed several of the older provinces, and with a few exceptions, seems to have followed the old provincial boundaries.

It occupied the old areas of the Pontus , Armenia Minor and northern Cappadocia , with its capital at Amasea. It covered southern central Asia Minor, and its capital was Amorium.

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It provided the bulk of the Byzantine navy facing the new Arab fleets, which after the Battle of the Masts contested control of the Mediterranean with the Empire. At the same time, Crete and the imperial exclave of Cherson in the Crimea formed independent archontiai. Their large size and power however made their generals prone to revolt, as had been evidenced in the turbulent period —, and would again during the great revolt of Artabasdos in — You can help by adding to it.

20 Sep Does anyone else hate the tier 2 and beyond unit models as much as I do? The first ones look good and im proud of my armies but once.

May Byzantine themata in Anatolia, c. Despite the prominence of the themes, it was some time before they became the basic unit of the imperial administrative system. Although they had become associated with specific regions by the early 8th century, it took until the end of the 8th century for the civil fiscal administration to begin being organized around them, instead of following the old provincial system. At the same time, the need to protect the Anatolian heartland of Byzantium from the Arab raids led to the creation, in the later 8th and early 9th centuries, of a series of small frontier districts, the kleisourai or kleisourarchiai "defiles, enclosures".

Gradually, most of these were elevated to full themes. As their name reveals, they were mostly populated by Armenians , either indigenous or settled there by the Byzantine authorities. One of their peculiarities was the extremely large number of officers the theme of Charpezikion alone counted 22 senior and 47 junior tourmarchai. Thus, from the s, more and more professional regiments, both from the old tagmata and newly raised formations, were stationed along the border.

To command them as well as coordinate the forces of the small frontier themes, a number of large regional commands "ducates" or "catepanates" , under a doux or katepano , were set up. In the East, the three original such commands, set up by John Tzimiskes, were those of the doukes of Antioch , Chaldia and Mesopotamia. As Byzantium expanded into Greater Armenia in the early 11th century, these were complemented or replaced by the commands of Iberia , Vaspurakan , Edessa and Ani.

At the same time, the mobile, professional forces of the tagmata gained in importance over the old thematic armies and fleets of the interior, which soon began to be neglected. Indeed, from the early 11th century military service was increasingly commuted to cash payments.

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While the frontier ducates were able to meet most local threats, the dissolution of the old theme-based defensive system deprived the Byzantine defensive system of any strategic depth. Coupled with increasing reliance on foreign mercenaries and the forces of allied and vassal states, as well as the revolts and civil wars resulting from the widening rift between the civilian bureaucracy in Constantinople and the land-holding military elites the dynatoi , by the time of the Battle of Manzikert in , the Byzantine army was already undergoing a severe crisis and collapsed completely in the battle's aftermath.

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Background During the late 6th and early 7th centuries, the Byzantine Empire was under frequent attack from all sides.


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Rebuilding Rome - Byzantium - Let's Play Europa Universalis 4


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