Learn how to use headlights - high beam, low beam lights & dipper

Опубликовано07.11.2018 в 18:10АвторGolabar






Voltage drop on low beam headlight circuit

History of automotive headlamps One of the first optical headlamp lenses, the Corning Conaphore. Selective yellow "Noviol" glass version shown. Acetylene lamps were popular because the flame is resistant to wind and rain. The first electric headlamps were introduced in on the Columbia Electric Car from the Electric Vehicle Company of Hartford, Connecticut , and were optional. Two factors limited the widespread use of electric headlamps: The Guide Lamp Company introduced "dipping" low-beam headlamps in , but the Cadillac system allowed the light to be dipped using a lever inside the car rather than requiring the driver to stop and get out.

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The Bilux bulb was the first modern unit, having the light for both low dipped and high main beams of a headlamp emitting from a single bulb. A similar design was introduced in by Guide Lamp called the "Duplo". In the foot-operated dimmer switch or dip switch was introduced and became standard for much of the century. From highest to lowest, the beams were called "country passing", "country driving" and "city driving". The Nash also used a three-beam system, although in this case with bulbs of the conventional two-filament type, and the intermediate beam combined low beam on the driver's side with high beam on the passenger's side, so as to maximise the view of the roadside while minimizing glare toward oncoming traffic.

Directional lighting, using a switch and electromagnetically shifted reflector to illuminate the curbside only, was introduced in the rare, one-year-only Tatra. Steering-linked lighting was featured on the Tucker Torpedo's center-mounted headlight, and was later popularized by the Citroen DS. This made it possible to turn the light in the direction of travel when the steering wheel turned, and is now widely adopted technology.

This led to different front-end designs for each side of the Atlantic for decades. Shortly thereafter headlamps using the new light source were introduced in Europe. These were effectively prohibited in the US, where standard-size sealed beam headlamps were mandatory and intensity regulations were low.

Design and style Beyond the engineering, performance and regulatory-compliance aspects of headlamps, there is the consideration of the various ways they are designed and arranged on a motor vehicle.

Headlamps were round for many years, because that is the native shape of a parabolic reflector. They were prohibited in the United States where round lamps were required until Other American marques followed suit when all states permitted quad lamps in Auto stylists such as Virgil Exner carried out design studies with the low beams in their conventional outboard location, and the high beams vertically stacked at the center-line of the car.

No such designs reached volume production; most cars had their headlights in pairs side by side on each side of the car, and some Oldsmobiles had a parking light in the middle of each pair. Nash used this arrangement in the model year. Pontiac used this design starting in the model year; American Motors , Ford , Cadillac and Chrysler followed two years later.

Also in the model year, the Buick Riviera had concealable stacked headlamps. In the late s and early s, Lincoln , Buick , and Chrysler arranged the headlamps diagonally by placing the low-beam lamps outboard and above the high-beam lamps. Certain British cars used a less extreme diagonal arrangement, with the inboard high-beam lamps placed only slightly lower than the outboard low-beam units.

At the same time, the new regulations prohibited any decorative or protective element in front of the headlamps whenever the headlamps are switched on. Glass-covered headlamps, used on e. This change meant that vehicles with headlamp configurations designed for good aerodynamic performance could not achieve it for the US market.

Low beam definition, an automobile headlight beam providing short-range illumination of a road and intended chiefly for use in driving on the streets of cities .

When Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard was amended in to permit rectangular sealed-beam headlamps, these were placed in horizontally arrayed or vertically stacked pairs. By , the majority of new cars in the US market were equipped with rectangular lamps.

As previously with round lamps, the US permitted only two standardized sizes of rectangular sealed-beam lamp: International headlamp styling, —present In , granting a petition from Ford Motor Company, the US headlamp regulations were amended to allow replaceable-bulb, nonstandard-shape, architectural headlamps with aerodynamic lenses that could for the first time be plastic. This allowed the first US-market car since with replaceable bulb headlamps: These composite headlamps were sometimes referred to as "Euro" headlamps, since aerodynamic headlamps were common in Europe.

Though conceptually similar to European headlamps with non-standardized shape and replaceable-bulb construction, these headlamps conform to the SAE headlamp standards of US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard , and not the internationalized European safety standards used outside North America. Nevertheless, this change to US regulations largely united headlamp styling within and outside the North American market.

In the late s, round headlamps returned to popularity on new cars. These are generally not the discrete self-contained round lamps as found on older cars certain Jaguars excepted , but rather involve circular or oval optical elements within an architecturally shaped housing assembly.

They were mounted in the front fenders, which were smooth until the lights were cranked out - each with its own small dash-mounted crank - by the operator. They aided aerodynamics when the headlamps were not in use, and were among the Cord's signature design features.

Later hidden headlamps require one or more vacuum-operated servos and reservoirs, with associated plumbing and linkage, or electric motors , geartrains and linkages to raise the lamps to an exact position to assure correct aiming despite ice, snow and age.

Some hidden headlamp designs, such as those on the Saab Sonett III, used a lever-operated mechanical linkage to raise the headlamps into position.

During the s and s many notable sports cars used this feature such as the Chevrolet Corvette C3 , Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer and Lamborghini Countach as they allowed low bonnet lines but raised the lights to the required height, but since no modern volume-produced car models use hidden headlamps, because they present difficulties in complying with pedestrian-protection provisions added to international auto safety regulations regarding protuberances on car bodies to minimize injury to pedestrians struck by cars.

When the lamps are switched on, the covers are swung out of the way, usually downward or upward, for example on the Jaguar XJ The door mechanism may be actuated by vacuum pots, as on some Ford vehicles of the late s through early s such as the — Mercury Cougar , or by an electric motor as on various Chrysler products of the middle s through late s such as the — Dodge Charger.

Regulations and requirements Modern headlamps are electrically operated, positioned in pairs, one or two on each side of the front of a vehicle. A headlamp system is required to produce a low and a high beam, which may be produced by multiple pairs of single-beam lamps or by a pair of dual-beam lamps, or a mix of single-beam and dual-beam lamps. High beams cast most of their light straight ahead, maximizing seeing distance but producing too much glare for safe use when other vehicles are present on the road.

Because there is no special control of upward light, high beams also cause backdazzle from fog , rain and snow due to the retroreflection of the water droplets. Low beams have stricter control of upward light, and direct most of their light downward and either rightward in right-traffic countries or leftward in left-traffic countries , to provide forward visibility without excessive glare or backdazzle.

This beam is intended for use whenever other vehicles are present ahead, whether oncoming or being overtaken. The international ECE Regulations for filament headlamps specify a beam with a sharp, asymmetric cutoff preventing significant amounts of light from being cast into the eyes of drivers of preceding or oncoming cars.

As such, they are only suitable for use when alone on the road, as the glare they produce will dazzle other drivers. International ECE Regulations permit higher-intensity high-beam headlamps than are allowed under North American regulations. Right- and left-hand traffic Headlamp sold in Sweden not long before Dagen H changeover from left to right hand traffic.

Opaque decal blocks the lens portion for low beam upkick to the right, and bears warning: Most low-beam headlamps are specifically designed for use on only one side of the road. Within Europe, when driving a vehicle with right-traffic headlamps in a left-traffic country or vice versa for a limited time as for example on vacation or in transit , it is a legal requirement to adjust the headlamps temporarily so that their wrong-side beam distribution does not dazzle oncoming drivers.

This may be achieved by methods including adhering opaque decals or prismatic lenses to a designated part of the lens. Some projector-type headlamps can be made to produce a proper left- or right-traffic beam by shifting a lever or other movable element in or on the lamp assembly. Because wrong-side-of-road headlamps blind oncoming drivers and do not adequately light the driver's way, and blackout strips and adhesive prismatic lenses reduce the safety performance of the headlamps, some countries require all vehicles registered or used on a permanent or semi-permanent basis within the country to be equipped with headlamps designed for the correct traffic-handedness.

Use in daytime Main article: Daytime running lamp Some countries require automobiles to be equipped with daytime running lights DRL to increase the conspicuity of vehicles in motion during the daytime.

Regional regulations govern how the DRL function may be provided. In Canada the DRL function required on vehicles made or imported since can be provided by the headlamps, the fog lamps , steady-lit operation of the front turn signals , or by special daytime running lamps.

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Japan formerly had bespoke lighting regulations similar to the US standards, but for the left side of the road. However, Japan now adheres to the ECE standard. The differences between the SAE and ECE headlamp standards are primarily in the amount of glare permitted toward other drivers on low beam SAE permits much more glare , the minimum amount of light required to be thrown straight down the road SAE requires more , and the specific locations within the beam at which minimum and maximum light levels are specified.

ECE low beams are characterized by a distinct horizontal "cutoff" line at the top of the beam. Below the line is bright, and above is dark. On the side of the beam facing away from oncoming traffic right in right-traffic countries, left in left-traffic countries , this cutoff sweeps or steps upward to direct light to road signs and pedestrians.

SAE low beams may or may not have a cutoff, and if a cutoff is present, it may be of two different general types: VOL, which is conceptually similar to the ECE beam in that the cutoff is located at the top of the left side of the beam and aimed slightly below horizontal, or VOR, which has the cutoff at the top of the right side of the beam and aimed at the horizon. US proponents of the SAE system claim that the ECE low beam cutoff gives short seeing distances and inadequate illumination for overhead road signs, while international proponents of the ECE system claim that the SAE system produces too much glare.

Elsewhere in the world, ECE internationalized regulations are in force either by reference or by incorporation in individual countries' vehicular codes. US laws required sealed beam headlamps on all vehicles between and , and other countries such as Japan, United Kingdom and Australia also made extensive use of sealed beams.

Headlamps must be kept in proper aim. This gives vehicles with high-mounted headlamps a seeing distance advantage, at the cost of increased glare to drivers in lower vehicles. By contrast, ECE headlamp aim angle is linked to headlamp mounting height, to give all vehicles roughly equal seeing distance and all drivers roughly equal glare. ECE Regulation 48 currently requires new vehicles to be equipped with headlamps emitting white light.

Later stages of the implementation were disrupted in September by the outbreak of war. More generally, country-specific vehicle technical regulations in Europe were regarded as a costly nuisance. In a survey published in , automakers gave a range of responses when asked what it cost to supply a car with yellow headlamps for France. General Motors and Lotus said there was no additional cost, Rover said the additional cost was marginal, and Volkswagen said yellow headlamps added 28 Deutsche Marks to the cost of vehicle production.

The directive was adopted unanimously by the Council, and hence with France's vote. Light is dispersed vertically shown and laterally not shown. The flutes and prisms spread and distribute the light collected by the reflector.

Lens optics A light source filament or arc is placed at or near the focus of a reflector, which may be parabolic or of non-parabolic complex shape. Fresnel and prism optics moulded into the headlamp lens refract shift parts of the light laterally and vertically to provide the required light distribution pattern.

Most sealed-beam headlamps have lens optics. The clear front cover lens serves only a protective function. Starting in the s, headlamp reflectors began to evolve beyond the simple stamped steel parabola. The Austin Maestro was the first vehicle equipped with Lucas-Carello's homofocal reflectors, which comprised parabolic sections of different focal length to improve the efficiency of light collection and distribution.

General Motors ' Guide Lamp division in America had experimented with clear-lens complex-reflector lamps in the early s and achieved promising results, but the US-market Honda Accord was first with clear-lens multi-reflector headlamps; these were developed by Stanley in Japan.

Depending on the development tools and techniques in use, the reflector may be engineered from the start as a bespoke shape, or it may start as a parabola standing in for the size and shape of the completed package. In the latter case, the entire surface area is modified so as to produce individual segments of specifically calculated, complex contours.

History of automotive headlamps One of the first optical headlamp lenses, the Corning Conaphore. Selective yellow "Noviol" glass version shown.


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Comments: 2

  1. 11.11.2018
    Vutilar

    I thank for the information. I did not know it.

  2. 21.11.2018
    Goltilkree

    How will order to understand?