King kong vs woman's

Опубликовано09.11.2018 в 04:23АвторYozshujas






King Kong (1933): sniffing scene

When she's technically a king. Christina of Sweden was one of Europe's most unusual monarchs, an intellectual ruler and patron of the arts known for flouting convention at every turn. The decisions she made about her rule, her religion, and her relationships shocked 17th century Europe—and have yet to be forgotten today. She has made fools of us all! Things got more unorthodox from there. Accordingly, her father decreed that she should receive the education of a prince.

Christina threw herself into her studies, rising at dawn for her lessons in classical Greek and Latin, theology, politics, and philosophy. She also learned fencing, hunting, horse riding, and other sports and games traditionally reserved for boys, as well as German, Dutch, Danish, French, Italian, Hebrew, and Arabic. As an adult, she became one of the best-educated women in Europe. Because her mother was seen as mentally unstable, her father had decreed that in the event of his death Christina should be cared by her paternal aunt, Catherine of Sweden.

When Oxenstierna sent his son to the Peace Congress in Westphalia to seek a hard line on negotiations, for example, Christina sent her own delegate to oppose him, seeking peace at any cost. She wore a signature mop of unruly curls, which she rarely brushed, and regularly offended people with her blunt, unfiltered way of speaking. She was known across Europe for her blazing wit and keen intelligence—but just as well for her barroom manners and love of a dirty joke.

She informed her council: When she was 16, she became secretly engaged to her first cousin, Charles Gustav, who was in love with her, before he went off to war for several years.

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But by the time he returned, the deal was off, and Christina resisted all future attempts by her advisors to have her married.

In , at age 22, she named Charles Gustav as her heir. Two years later, Christina began making noise about abdicating and leaving her cousin in charge. She claimed that Sweden needed a man to rule and especially to lead the army, and also cited her heavy workload, bad eyesight, neck pain, and other physical ailments as reasons to forfeit the throne.

Oxenstierna objected to this plan, as did her council. But another of her reasons eventually emerged: The queen had decided to convert to Catholicism. She was 28 years old. Although they obliged in taking her sword, key, orb, and sceptre, an officer named Per Brahe, who was tasked with removing the crown, refused—in the end, she had to remove it herself. When the ritual was over, Christina wore only an unadorned white taffeta dress.

Charles made a show of declining, then escorted her to her apartments.

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Christina left Sweden within a couple days. She then continued to Innsbruck, where she was received by another Catholic Habsburg archduke, Ferdinand Charles. Ferdinand Charles, who was as notorious as Christina for his extravagant tastes and terrible money management skills, threw a multi-day party for her. By the time she left for Italy five days later, her visit had nearly financially ruined him.

Six months after she left Uppsala, she landed in Rome, where Pope Alexander VII welcomed his prize convert with an opulent reception featuring onlookers and a procession of camels and elephants. Once in Rome, year-old Christina wasted no time in inspiring local gossip. Almost immediately, she began socializing with men her age, striking up a particularly close relationship with the young Cardinal Decio Azzolino, a code-breaker and one of the leaders of the liberal Squadrone Volante Flying Squad movement, which aspired to combat nepotism in the papal conclaves.

Rumors quickly emerged that Christina and Cardinal Azzolino were having a lusty affair. Almost as quickly, Alexander VII noticed the talk and asked them to limit the time they spent together. Christina wrote him dozens of ardent letters, some in French, others in a code that the two had devised. French-Italian politician Jules Mazarin was aiming to free Naples from Spanish control and transform it into a semi-independent, pro-French monarchy, and Christina, who sought financial independence from the pope, was an attractive candidate as a leader.

Christina was not welcomed as warmly in Paris as she had hoped, though—Parisians were shocked by her open, unscrupulous demeanor and androgynous style, and she was criticized for the way she sat with her legs crossed, put her feet on theatre seats, and laughed at inappropriate times. It was whispered that she made advances toward more than one French noblewoman, too.

But on her way to Naples, her entourage received news that the city had been ravaged by the bubonic plague, and so she was forced to abandon the plan and head back to France. She was granted apartments by the royal court at the Palace of Fontainebleau, just outside of Paris. Fontainebleau was the scene of another great scandal, one that seemed only slightly less shocking to Europe than her abdication.

For months, Christina had suspected her master of the horse, the marchese Gian Rinaldo Monaldeschi, of sharing her plan to become Queen of Naples with the Holy See. She ordered him to appear before her at the palace to answer for himself.

Monaldeschi denied the charges, but Christina remained unmoved and sentenced Monaldeschi to death. Afterwards, the horrified priest begged Christina on his knees not to have the death sentence carried out. Eventually, Monaldeschi was stabbed in the stomach by one Ludovico Santinelli, but his pursuers quickly discovered he was wearing chain-mail.

They then stabbed Monaldeschi in the face, before killing him with blows to the neck. Christina paid a monastery to say masses for Monaldeschi at his burial and washed her hands of the matter, expressing no regret.

This was not a good look for Christina. The marchese hailed from a powerful family that was close with the papacy, and her unapologetic attitude added insult to injury.

The Romans were infuriated, viewing the incident as nothing but a straight-up murder, and French public opinion was little better. She argued that it was a perfectly legal thing to do, as she had judicial rights over all members of her court as the queen regnant of Sweden, which she continued to call herself despite her abdication.

There were consequences, however. In May of , she reluctantly went back to Rome, where she knew an unhappy audience awaited. The pope wanted nothing to do with her. Once her greatest champion and benefactor, Alexander VII hung back at his summer residence, Castel Gandolfo, and made it clear that visits from Christina were not welcome. Since the pope had cut her off, the politician Mazarin let Christina stay at his place in Rome for a while.

Christina was in Hamburg when she heard the news, and was so thrilled that she tactlessly hung banners of celebration in the town. She also held a giant party at her rented mansion, replete with wine-flowing fountains—to the outrage of the Protestant population of Hamburg, who did not tolerate Catholics well. Furious locals stormed the house in an attempt to capture her, and the party ended with a riot, eight deaths, and Christina escaping out the back door in disguise. She also established her own theatre, Tor di Nona.

However, after Clement IX died, the next two popes, Clement X and his successor Innocent XI, were not friends of the theatre, with the latter forbidding women from acting, singing, or wearing low-cut gowns. Christina cheerfully ignored his laws, continuing to hire actresses in her playhouse. Christina's tumultuous life came to an end on April 19, , when she was Scholars think she may have died from a combination of diabetes mellitus, a streptococcus bacterial infection, and pneumonia.

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Cardinal Azzolino was at her bedside at the end, and she named him her heir. Since her death, Christina has been portrayed on the stage and the screen in dozens of productions, most notably by Swedish actress Greta Garbo in the not-very-accurate Queen Christina The Girl King, released in , comes slightly closer to the truth, but still hypes her alleged relationships with women over her work as a regent and activist of religious tolerance.

When she's technically a king.


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Comments: 3

  1. 17.11.2018
    Mokus

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  2. 22.11.2018
    Yozshukora

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    Gardalabar

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