Vatican City

Опубликовано12.01.2019 в 03:29АвторDonos

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Peter was built nearby. Ancient tradition holds that it was in this circus that Saint Peter was crucified upside-down. Funeral monuments and mausoleums and small tombs as well as altars to pagan gods of all kinds of polytheistic religions were constructed lasting until before the construction of the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter's in the first half of the 4th century. Remains of this ancient necropolis were brought to light sporadically during renovations by various popes throughout the centuries, increasing in frequency during the Renaissance until it was systematically excavated by orders of Pope Pius XII from to The Constantinian basilica was built in over what was believed to be the tomb of Saint Peter , buried in that cemetery.

A palace was constructed nearby as early as the 5th century during the pontificate of Pope Symmachus reigned — History of the Papacy The Italian peninsula in The shaded yellow territory in central Italy is the Papal State.

Popes gradually came to have a secular role as governors of regions near Rome. They ruled the Papal States , which covered a large portion of the Italian peninsula, for more than a thousand years until the midth century, when all the territory belonging to the papacy was seized by the newly created Kingdom of Italy. For most of this time the popes did not live at the Vatican.

The Lateran Palace , on the opposite side of Rome was their habitual residence for about a thousand years.

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From to , they lived at Avignon in France. On their return to Rome they chose to live at the Vatican. They moved to the Quirinal Palace in , after work on it was completed under Pope Paul V — , but on the capture of Rome in retired to the Vatican, and what had been their residence became that of the King of Italy.

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Italian unification Main article: Roman Question In , the Pope's holdings were left in an uncertain situation when Rome itself was annexed by the Piedmont -led forces which had united the rest of Italy , after a nominal resistance by the papal forces. Between and the status of the Pope was referred to as the "Roman Question". Italy made no attempt to interfere with the Holy See within the Vatican walls. However, it confiscated church property in many places. In the Quirinal Palace was confiscated by the king of Italy and became the royal palace.

Thereafter the popes resided undisturbed within the Vatican walls, and certain papal prerogatives were recognized by the Law of Guarantees , including the right to send and receive ambassadors. But the Popes did not recognise the Italian king's right to rule in Rome, and they refused to leave the Vatican compound until the dispute was resolved in ; Pope Pius IX — , the last ruler of the Papal States, was referred to as a " prisoner in the Vatican ".

Forced to give up secular power, the popes focused on spiritual issues. Although German troops occupied the city of Rome after the September Armistice of Cassibile , and the Allies from , they respected Vatican City as neutral territory. The British uncompromisingly said "they would bomb Rome whenever the needs of the war demanded". In connection with the Allied invasion of Sicily , American aircraft bombed Rome on 19 July , aiming particularly at the railway hub.

Some 1, people were killed; Pius XII himself, who had been described in the previous month as "worried sick" about the possible bombing, went to the scene of the tragedy. Another raid took place on 13 August , after Mussolini had been ousted from power.

By the end of World War II, there were several prominent vacancies: In , a new concordat between the Holy See and Italy modified certain provisions of the earlier treaty, including the position of Catholicism as the Italian state religion, a position given to it by a statute of the Kingdom of Sardinia of They claimed the new building would block views of the Basilica from nearby Italian apartments.

The head of the Vatican's Department of Technical Services robustly rejected challenges to the Vatican State's right to build within its borders. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Main article: It is in this territory that St. Peter's Basilica , the Apostolic Palace , the Sistine Chapel , and museums were built, along with various other buildings. The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until Being separated from the city, on the west bank of the river Tiber , the area was an outcrop of the city that was protected by being included within the walls of Leo IV — , and later expanded by the current fortification walls, built under Paul III — , Pius IV — and Urban VIII — When the Lateran Treaty of that gave the state its form was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory were influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop.

For some tracts of the frontier, there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part of the frontier a modern wall was constructed. The territory includes St. Peter's Square is reached through the Via della Conciliazione which runs from close to the Tiber to St.

This grand approach was constructed by Benito Mussolini after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty. According to the Lateran Treaty, certain properties of the Holy See that are located in Italian territory, most notably the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas , enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies.

According to the Lateran Treaty Art. Peter's Square, up to but not including the steps leading to the basilica, is normally patrolled by the Italian police.

There is free public access to Saint Peter's Square and Basilica and, on the occasion of papal general audiences, to the hall in which they are held. For these audiences and for major ceremonies in Saint Peter's Basilica and Square, tickets free of charge must be obtained beforehand. The Vatican Museums, incorporating the Sistine Chapel, usually charge an entrance fee.

There is no general public access to the gardens, but guided tours for small groups can be arranged to the gardens and excavations under the basilica. Other places are open to only those individuals who have business to transact there. Some minor local features, principally mists and dews, are caused by the anomalous bulk of St Peter's Basilica, the elevation, the fountains and the size of the large paved square. Climate data for Vatican City Month.

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{REPLACEMENT-(Зайцев.нет)-(}Peter was built nearby. Ancient tradition holds that it was in this circus that Saint Peter was crucified upside-down. Funeral monuments and mausoleums and small tombs as well as altars to pagan gods of all kinds of polytheistic religions were constructed lasting until before the construction of the Constantinian Basilica of St.

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